Theological stateist theories, the most well-known of which is Divine Command Theory DCT , ground our moral obligations directly in some state of God. The prior obligations objection poses a challenge to theological stateism. If yes, then what grounds this prior obligation? God creates our moral obligations out of normative nothingness.
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I argue that this helps DCT proponents to escape the prior obligations objection. Other theological stateist theories can modify their theory similarly to meet this objection. Moral Arguments for Theism in Philosophy of Religion. A serious challenge to religious believers in the Abrahamic traditions is that the God of the Old Testament seems to command immoral actions.
Religious Ethics in Normative Ethics. Thomas Aquinas in Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy.
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Constructivist positions in meta-ethics are on the rise in recent years. Similarly, there has been a flurry of activity amongst theistic philosophers examining the relationship between God and normative facts. But so far as I am aware, these two literatures have almost never intersected with each other. Constructivists have said very little about God, and theists working on religious ethics have said very little about constructivist views in meta-ethics.
In this paper, I draw some connections between the two literatures, and My main conclusion will be that theists should be hesitant about accepting any of the leading versions of constructivism in the contemporary meta-ethics literature. Ideal Observer Theories in Meta-Ethics. Moral Constructivism in Meta-Ethics. Moral Irrealism in Meta-Ethics. Moral Nonnaturalism in Meta-Ethics.
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Remove from this list. The argument used by Socrates to refute the thesis that piety is what all the gods love is one of the most well known in the history of philosophy. Yet some fundamental points of interpretation have gone unnoticed. I will show that i the strategy of Socrates' argument refutes not only Euthyphro's theory of piety and such neighboring doctrines as cultural relativism and subjectivism, but nominalism in general; moreover, that ii the argument needs to assume much less than is generally Socrates in Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy. Divine command theories come in several different forms but at their core all of these theories claim that certain moral statuses exist in virtue of the fact that God has commanded them to exist.
Several authors argue that this core version of the DCT is vulnerable to an epistemological objection. But there is confusion as to the precise nature and significance of In this article, I try to clear up this confusion and address these critiques. I do so in three ways. First, I offer a simplified general version of the objection. And third, I outline four possible interpretations of the argument, each with a differing degree of significance for the proponent of the DCT.
Moral Epistemology, Misc in Meta-Ethics. Moral Naturalism in Meta-Ethics. Moral Uncertainty in Meta-Ethics. Over the last twenty-five years skeptical theism has become one of the leading contemporary responses to the atheological argument from evil. However, more recently, some critics of skeptical theism have argued that the skeptical theists are in fact unwittingly committed to a malignant form of moral skepticism.
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Several skeptical theists have responded to this critique by appealing to divine commands as a bulwark against the alleged threat of moral skepticism. Moral Skepticism in Meta-Ethics. Religious Skepticism in Philosophy of Religion. The Argument from Evil in Philosophy of Religion. What should individuals do when their firmly held moral beliefs are prima facie inconsistent with their religious beliefs?
In this article weoutline several ways of posing such consistency challenges and offer a detailed taxonomy of the various responses available to someone facing a consistency challenge of this sort. Throughout the paper, our concerns are primarily pedagogical: how best to pose consistency challenges in the classroom, how to stimulate discussion of the various responses to them, and how to relate such consistency Arguments Against Theism in Philosophy of Religion.
Philosophy of Education in Philosophy of Social Science. Philosophy of Religion, Misc in Philosophy of Religion. Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion with philosopher Christian Miller, neuroscientist Heather Berlin, and historian of science Michael Shermer to examine our moral ecology and its influence on our underlying assumptions about human nature. Evolution of Altruism in Philosophy of Biology. Evolution of Morality in Normative Ethics. Moral Character, Misc in Normative Ethics. Virtues and Vices in Normative Ethics.
In my original paper, I claimed that our moral obligations are real, objective, and grounded in the supernatural. In his critical article, Michael Shermer has raised a number of important challenges Here I try to defend the position and respond to at least his most serious objections. Arguments from Moral Normativity in Philosophy of Religion. Moral Realism, Misc in Meta-Ethics.
Divine Command Theory and moral obligation
This paper is part of a six paper exchange with Michael Shermer. Section two then introduces the position that morality depends in some way upon God. Section three turns to some of the leading arguments for this view. Finally, we will conclude with the most powerful challenge to this approach, namely what has come to be called the Euthyphro Dilemma. Arguments from Moral Order in Philosophy of Religion. Religious Topics, Misc in Philosophy of Religion.
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Here I raise serious reservations about both Shermer's account of where morality comes from and his account of what morality tells us to do. His approach to the foundations of morality would allow some very disturbing behaviors to count as moral, and his Evolutionary Psychology in Philosophy of Cognitive Science. Mark Murphy argues that the property identity version of divine command theory, coupled with the doctrine that God has freedom in commanding, violates the supervenience of the moral on the nonmoral. In other words, they permit two situations exactly alike in nonmoral facts to differ in moral facts.
I give three arguments to show that a divine command theorist of this sort can consistently affirm moral supervenience. Each argument contends that there are always nonmoral differences between worlds with different divine Meta-Ethics, Misc in Meta-Ethics. I reply to criticisms of the divine command theory with an eye to noting the relation of ethics to an ontological ground.
The criticisms include: the theory makes the standard of right and wrong arbitrary, it traps the defender of the theory in a vicious circle, it violates moral autonomy, it is a relic of our early deontological state of moral development. I then suggest how Henry Veatch's view of good as an ontological feature of the world provides a context This raises two questions.
First, why does moral obligation require an authority figure? Second, what gives God authority? I argue that, according to Locke, moral obligation requires an authority figure because to have an obligation is to be accountable to someone. I then argue that, according to Locke, God has a kind of parental authority inasmuch as he is Christian Ethics in Normative Ethics.
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Natural Law Theories in Normative Ethics. Everyone agrees that the moral features of things supervene on their natural features??? Everyone is wrong, or so I will argue. In the first section, I explain the version of moral supervenience that Smith and others argue everyone should accept. In the second section, I argue that the mere conceptual possibility of a divine command theory of morality is sufficient to refute the version of moral supervenience under consideration.
Lastly, I consider and respond to two objections, showing, among Moral Supervenience in Meta-Ethics.
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In the second section, I argue that the mere conceptual possibility of a divine command theory of morality DCT is sufficient to refute the version of moral supervenience under consideration. Lastly, I consider and respond to two objections, I will In a series of articles, Wes Morriston has launched what can only be considered a full-scale assault on the divine command theory DCT of morality. According to Morriston, proponents of this theory are committed to an alarming counterpossible: that if God did command an annual human sacrifice, it would be morally obligatory.
Indeed, if there were such a deity, the world would be a terrible place—certainly Counterpossible Conditionals in Philosophy of Language. I offer a series of axiomatic formalizations of Divine Command Theory motivated by certain methodological considerations. Given these considerations, I present what I take to be the best axiomatization of Divine Command Theory, an axiomatization which requires a non-standardsemantics for quantified modal logic. This book explores philosophical ethics in Arabo-Islamic thought. Islamic Ethics in Normative Ethics.
We claim that divine command metaethicists have not thought through the nature of the expression of divine love with sufficient rigor. We argue, against prior divine command theories, that the radical difference between God and the natural world means that grounding divine command in divine love can only ground a formal claim of the divine on the human; recipients of revelation must construct particular commands out of this formal claim. While some metaethicists might respond to us by claiming that this By linking divine command to imitatio Dei, the believer can have confidence that her imitative acts of God are not inaccurate constructions of the commanded life.